The loss of human capital in Ukraine

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School disruptions due to war, pandemics, or natural disasters can have persistent negative effects on learning outcomes. This column estimates the learning losses due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. From a position of relative parity with its neighbours pre-pandemic, learning outcomes in Ukraine are now estimated to be below the lowest-performing countries in Europe. Opening classes for Ukrainian refugees, providing online or by-phone tutoring, or adapting curricula for refugees can help minimise the long-term impacts of the conflict.

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